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DISPARITIES

Blatt B, LeLacheur SF, Galinsky AD, Simmens SJ, Greenberg L. Does perspective-taking increase patient satisfaction in medical encounters? Acad
Med. Sep 2010;85(9):1445-1452.

Burgess D, van Ryn M, Crowley-Matoka M, Malat J. Understanding the provider contribution to race/ethnicity disparities in pain treatment: insights from
dual process models of stereotyping. Pain Med. 2006 Mar-Apr 2006;7(2):119-134.

Burgess D, van Ryn M, Dovidio J, Saha S. Reducing racial bias among health care providers: lessons from social-cognitive psychology. J Gen Intern
Med. Jun 2007;22(6):882-887.

Drwecki BB, Moore CF, Ward SE, Prkachin KM. Reducing racial disparities in pain treatment: the role of empathy and perspective-taking. Pain. Jan
2011.

Hausmann LR, Kressin NR, Hanusa BH, Ibrahim SA. Perceived racial discrimination in health care and its association with patients' healthcare
experiences: does the measure matter? Ethn Dis. 2010;20(1):40-47.

Todd AR, Bodenhausen GV, Richeson JA, Galinsky AD. Perspective taking combats automatic expressions of racial bias. J Pers Soc Psychol. Mar 2011.

Galinsky A, Moskowitz G. Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism. J Pers Soc Psychol.
Apr 2000;78(4):708-724.

Rudman L, Ashmore R, Gary M. "Unlearning" automatic biases: the malleability of implicit prejudice and stereotypes. J Pers Soc Psychol. Nov 2001;81
(5):856-868.

van Ryn M, Fu SS. Paved with good intentions: do public health and human service providers contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in health? Am J
Public Health. 2003;93(2):248-255.

van Ryn M, Burke J. The effect of patient race and socio-economic status on physicians' perceptions of patients. Soc Sci Med. 2000;50(6):813-828.

IMPLICIT BIAS AND UNCONSCIOUS STEREOTYPING

Sabin JA, Greenwald AG. The Influence of Implicit Bias on Treatment Recommendations for 4 Common Pediatric Conditions: Pain, Urinary Tract
Infection, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Asthma. Am J Public Health. Mar 2012.

Blair IV, Steiner JF, Havranek EP. Unconscious (implicit) bias and health disparities: where do we go from here? Perm J. 2011;15(2):71-78.

Teachman BA, Gapinski KD, Brownell KD, Rawlins M, Jeyaram S. Demonstrations of implicit anti-fat bias: the impact of providing causal information and
evoking empathy. Health Psychol. Jan 2003;22(1):68-78.

Burgess D. Are providers more likely to contribute to healthcare disparities under high levels of cognitive load? How features of the healthcare setting
may lead to biases in medical decision making. Med Decis Making. 2010 Mar-Apr 2010;30(2):246-257.

Burgess D, Crowley-Matoka M, Phelan S, et al. Patient race and physicians' decisions to prescribe opioids for chronic low back pain. Soc Sci Med. Dec
2008;67(11):1852-1860.

Burgess D, Ding Y, Hargreaves M, van Ryn M, Phelan S. The association between perceived discrimination and underutilization of needed medical and
mental health care in a multi-ethnic community sample. J Health Care Poor Underserved. Aug 2008;19(3):894-911.

Burgess D, Grill J, Noorbaloochi S, et al. The effect of perceived racial discrimination on bodily pain among older African American men. Pain Med. Nov
2009;10(8):1341-1352.

Burgess D, Powell A, Griffin J, Partin M. Race and the validity of self-reported cancer screening behaviors: development of a conceptual model. Prev
Med. Feb 2009;48(2):99-107.

Burgess D, Warren J, Phelan S, Dovidio J, van Ryn M. Stereotype threat and health disparities: what medical educators and future physicians need to
know. J Gen Intern Med. May 2010;25 Suppl 2:S169-177.

Burgess D, Tran A, Lee R, van Ryn M. Effects of perceived discrimination on mental health and mental health services utilization among gay, lesbian,
bisexual and transgender persons. J LGBT Health Res. 2007;3(4):1-14.

Clark-Hitt R, Malat J, Burgess D, Friedemann-Sanchez G. Doctors' and nurses' explanations for racial disparities in medical treatment. J Health Care
Poor Underserved. Feb 2010;21(1):386-400.

Crowley-Matoka M, Saha S, Dobscha S, Burgess D. Problems of quality and equity in pain management: exploring the role of biomedical culture. Pain
Med. Oct 2009;10(7):1312-1324.

Dobscha S, Soleck G, Dickinson K, et al. Associations between race and ethnicity and treatment for chronic pain in the VA. J Pain. Oct 2009;10(10):
1078-1087.

Fu S, Burgess D, Hatsukami D, et al. Race and nicotine replacement treatment outcomes among low-income smokers. Am J Prev Med. Dec 2008;35(6
Suppl):S442-448.

Green A, Carney D, Pallin D, et al. Implicit bias among physicians and its prediction of thrombolysis decisions for black and white patients. J Gen Intern
Med. Sep 2007;22(9):1231-1238.

Greenwald A, Poehlman T, Uhlmann E, Banaji M. Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. J Pers
Soc Psychol. Jul 2009;97(1):17-41.

Nosek M. Healthcare apartheid and quality of life for people with disabilities. Qual Life Res. May 2010;19(4):609-610.

Peris T, Teachman B, Nosek B. Implicit and explicit stigma of mental illness: links to clinical care. J Nerv Ment Dis. Oct 2008;196(10):752-760.

Phelan S, van Ryn M, Wall M, Burgess D. Understanding primary care physicians' treatment of chronic low back pain: the role of physician and practice
factors. Pain Med. Oct 2009;10(7):1270-1279.

Ranganath K, Nosek B. Implicit attitude generalization occurs immediately; explicit attitude generalization takes time. Psychol Sci. Mar 2008;19(3):249-
254.

Roth C, Burgess D. Changing residents' beliefs and concerns about treating chronic noncancer pain with opioids: evaluation of a pilot workshop. Pain
Med. Oct 2008;9(7):890-902.

Sabin J, Nosek B, Greenwald A, Rivara F. Physicians' implicit and explicit attitudes about race by MD race, ethnicity, and gender. J Health Care Poor
Underserved. Aug 2009;20(3):896-913.

Burgess D, van Ryn M, Dovidio J, Saha S. Reducing racial bias among health care providers: lessons from social-cognitive psychology. J Gen Intern
Med 2007 Jun;22(6):882-7.

Burgess D, van Ryn M, Crowley-Matoka M, Malat J. Understanding the provider contribution to race/ethnicity disparities in pain treatment: insights from
dual process models of stereotyping. Pain Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;7(2):119-34.

Green C, Todd K, Lebovits A, Francis M. Disparities in pain: ethical issues. Pain Med. 2006 Nov-Dec;7(6):530-3.

van Ryn M, Burgess DJ, Dovidio JF, et al. The impact of racism on clinician cognition, behavior, and clinical decision making. Du Bois Review: Social
Science Research on Race. 2011;8(01):199-218.


Implicit Association Test: https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/
Project Implicit Information Page: http://projectimplicit.net/

RACIAL AND ETHNIC DISPARITIES IN PAIN CARE

Burgess D, van Ryn M, Crowley-Matoka M, Malat J. Understanding the provider contribution to race/ethnicity disparities in pain treatment: insights from
dual process models of stereotyping. Pain Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;7(2):119-34.

Green C, Todd K, Lebovits A, Francis M. Disparities in pain: ethical issues. Pain Med. 2006 Nov-Dec;7(6):530-3.

Green C, Anderson K, Baker T, Campbell L, Decker S, Fillingim R, Kalauokalani D, Kaloukalani D, Lasch K, Myers C, Tait R, Todd K, Vallerand A. The
unequal burden of pain: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in pain. Pain Med. 2003 Sep;4(3):277-94.

Nampiaparampil DE, Nampiaparampil JX, Harden RN. Pain and prejudice. Pain Med. 2009 May-Jun 2009;10(4):716-721

Todd K. Influence of ethnicity on emergency department pain management. Emerg Med (Fremantle). 2001 Sep;13(3):274-8.

Todd K, Deaton C, D'Adamo A, Goe L. Ethnicity and analgesic practice. Ann Emerg Med. 2000 Jan;35(1):11-6.

Todd K, Lee T, Hoffman J. The effect of ethnicity on physician estimates of pain severity in patients with isolated extremity trauma. JAMA. 1994 Mar 23-
30;271(12):925-8.

Todd K, Samaroo N, Hoffman J. Ethnicity as a risk factor for inadequate emergency department analgesia. JAMA. 1993 Mar 24-31;269(12):1537-9.

RACIAL AND ETHNIC DISPARITIES IN CARDIOVASCULAR CARE

Green A, Carney D, Pallin D, Ngo L, Raymond K, Iezzoni L, Banaji M. Implicit bias among physicians and its prediction of thrombolysis decisions for black
and white patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Sep;22(9):1231-8.

Bell PD, Hudson S. Equity in the diagnosis of chest pain: Race and gender. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2001 Jan-Feb;25(1):60-71.

Gregory PM, Rhoads GG, Wilson AC, O’Dowd KJ, Kostis JB. Impact of availability of hospital-based invasive cardiac services on racial differences in the
use of these services. American Heart Journal. 1999 Sep;138(3 Pt 1):507-17.

Daumit GL, Hermann JA, Coresh J, Powe NR. Use of cardiovascular procedures among black persons and white persons: a 7-year nationwide study in
patients with renal disease. Annals of  Internal  Medicine. 1999 Feb 2;130(3):173-82.

Hannan EL, van Ryn M, Burke J et al. Access to coronary artery bypass surgery by race/ethnicity and gender among patients who are appropriate for
surgery. Medical Care. 1999 Jan;37(1):68-77.

Scirica BM, Moliterno DJ, Every NR et al. Racial differences in the management of unstable angina: results from the multicenter GUARANTEE registry.
American Heart Journal. 1999 Dec;138(6 Pt 1):1065-72.

Taylor AJ, Meyer GS, Morse RW, Pearson CE. Can characteristics of a health care system mitigate ethnic bias in access to cardiovascular procedures?
Experience from the Military Health Services System. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1997 Oct;30(4):901-7.

Herholz H, Goff DC, Ramsey DJ, Chan FA, Ortiz C, Labarthe DR, Nichaman MZ. Women and Mexican Americans receive fewer cardiovascular drugs
following myocardial infarction than men and non-Hispanic whites: the Corpus Christi Heart Project, 1988-1990. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1996
Mar;49(3):279-87.

Van Ryn M, Burgess D, Malat J, Griffin J. Physicians' perceptions of patients' social and behavioral characteristics and race disparities in treatment
recommendations for men with coronary artery disease. Am J Public Health. 2006;96(2):351-357.

OTHER RESOURCES ABOUT RACIAL AND ETHNIC, AND SOCIOECONOMIC DISPARITIES

Betancourt J. Eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care: what is the role of academic medicine? Acad Med. 2006 Sep;81(9):788-92.

Betancourt J, King R. Unequal treatment: the Institute of Medicine report and its public health implications. Public Health Rep. 2003 Jul-Aug;118(4):287-
92.

Betancourt J, Maina A. The Institute of Medicine report "Unequal Treatment": implications for academic health centers. Mt Sinai J Med. 2004 Oct;71(5):
314-21.

Betancourt J, Maina A, Soni S. The IOM report unequal treatment: lessons for clinical practice. Del Med J. 2005 Sep;77(9):339-48.

Cone D, Richardson L, Todd K, Betancourt J, Lowe R. Health care disparities in emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med. 2003 Nov;10(11):1176-83.

Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR, eds. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, D.C: The National
Academies Press.

Kawachi I, Subramanian SV, Almeida-Filho N. A Glossary for health inequalities. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2002;56:647-652.

Wolfson M, Kaplan G, Lynch J, Ross N, Backlund E. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration. British Medical Journal.
1999;319:953-955.

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health. Allostatic Load and Allostasis. Available at http://www.
macses.ucsf.edu/Research/Allostatic/notebook/allostatic.html. Accessed August 9, 2003.

Braverman P, Gruskin S. Defining equity in health. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2003;57:254-258.

Pearce N, Smithy GD. Is Social Capital the Key to Inequalities in Health? American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93-1:122-129.

Green A. The human face of health disparities. Public Health Reports. 2003;118:303-308.

Bezruchka S. Are the rich making us sick? Washington Free Press (online). 2000;46.

Wilkinson R. Mind the Gap: Hierarchies, Health, and Human Evolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press: 2001.

Wolfson M, Kaplan G, Lynch J et al. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration. British Medical Journal. 1999;319:953-
955.

Marmot m, Wilkinson RG. Psychosocial and material pathways in the relation between income and health: a response to Lynch et al. British Medical
Journal. 2001; 322:1233-6.

Kaplan G, Pamuk E. Lynch J, Cohen R, Balfour J. Inequality in income and mortality in the United States: analysis of mortality and potential pathways.
British Medical Journal. 1996;312:999-1003.

Wilkinson RG. Comment: income, inequality, and social cohesion.
American Journal of Public Health. 1997 Sep;87(9):1504-6.

Kawachi I, Kennedy BP, Lochner K, Prothrow-Stith D. Social capital, income inequality, and mortality. American Journal of Public Health. 1997 Sep;87(9):
1491-8.

Bezruchka S. Is our society making you sick? Newsweek. 2001;Feb 26:14.
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